National Parks In Nepal

National Parks In Nepal
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There are 12 national parks in Nepal. The first national park of Nepal was announced by king Mahendra during his regime, there is no more king’s rule in existence.

Behind the first National park

King mahendra accepted the proposal of opening a national park, being proposed by Karna Shakya, Udayaman Sharma (Director general of National park) & Ram preet Yadav.

It was proposed in the terai region of Nepal where there is churiya hill. Churiya hill of Nepal is covered by 70% of sal forest and 30% of rain forest and the same site was proposed for Tiger conservation by above mentioned dignitaries. King mahendra himself and 4 Nobel man chartered a helicopter to recce the forest. They flew above the forest of churiya and then decided to make the site as a tiger conservation area. Those Nobel man described the importance of national park in Nepal. And spoke how it will work as a tourist attraction spot and how the country will get benefit from tourism.

As as well as this national park will preserve different types of reptiles and mammals; listening to all these benefits – king mahendra decided to grant permission to establish Royal National park. This is how the initiation for establishment of first national park of Nepal was done by king mahendra.

The name of first national park of Nepal was Royal National park and the director general of the national park was appointed to Mr. Udayaman Sharma.

The same Royal national park of that time is now Chitwan National park. So Chitwan national park became the first national park of Nepal.

Features of 12 National parks in Nepal are described below, beginning with the first national park – Chitwan National park:

Chitwan National park.

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Jeep Safari at chitwan

i) Location District-Chitwan national park lies in Chitwan, Nawalpur, Makwanpur – districts of Nepal.

ii) Established on 1973AD

iii) Listed on UNESCO world heritage site– 1984AD.

iv) Covered Area – 952Sq km

v) Covered Altitude – approx. 200m above sea level

vi) Animals found in the national park –

Mammals – one horned Rhino, Wild elephant, sloth bear, Bison (Gauri cow), common leopard, 256 number of Royal Bengal tiger were counted on 2019  and has aim to make 250 tigers by 2022. After solving poacher issue (police catching poachers as Skin of Tiger is valuable) Tiger are counted in high number.

Predators – Spotted Leopard (chitta in Nepali), Hob dear, Barking dear, Sambar dear, Swamp deer, Wild boar, Fish eater crocodile, Asian alligator, different type of snake in Chitwan, Indian rock python –non venom – Eats 5 times bigger than himself – one time hunt is enough for six months –lives on top of river rocks

600 species of birds has been recorded in Chitwan national park.

Bardiya National park.

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Sightseeing Tiger at Bardiya National Park

i) Location District – Bardiya national park lies in Bardiya district

ii) Established – 1976AD

iii) Covered Area – 968Sq km

iv) Location Altitude – approx. 80-150m above sea level

v) Animals found in Bardiya national park –

Royal Bengal Tiger (Bardiya National park is famous for sighting tiger), Asian Elephant (Raja is the name of Biggest elephant in Asia found in Nepal), Dolphin (found specifically in koshi ,karnali, Narayani river), Wild elephant, one horned Rhino, common leopard, Black buck, Swamp deer, Blue bull, wild boar, spotted deer, Hob deer ,otter, Gadiyal ,Asian alligator, Indian rock python, Dolphin (river of Asian gangatic) , Pangolin

350 types of bird species are found in Bardiya National Park

Sagarmatha National park .

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Yak seen at Sagarmatha National Park along with the mountain

i) Location District – Sagarmatha national park is in Solukhumbu district & that is where Mt Everest is located.

ii) Established – 1976AD

iii) Listed on UNESCO world heritage site– 1979AD.

iv) Covered Area – 1148Sq km

v) Location Altitude – approx 2780-5364m above sea level

vi) Wildlife found in Sagarmatha National Park –

    • Wild yak, Red panda, Snow leopard, Musk deer, Himalayan jharal, Golden sack, Grey wolf, Himalayan pikka
    • 250 species of bird species are recorded in Sagarmatha national park

Langtang National Park

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Red panda at Langtang National Park

i) Location -Langtang national park is in District of Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Sindhupalchok.

ii) Established-1976AD.

iii) Famous as red panda Show leopard Conservation Area till 1971 AD.

iv) Covered Area-1710sq,km.

v) Altitude range-1500m-7234m.

vi) Animal in langtang national park;

    • Redpanda, Musk deer, Snow leopard, Leopard cat, Barking deer, Wild boar, GuBal(deer like cattle), Lommon langur, Himalayan Brown bear, clouded leopard, Himalayan black bear
    • 350 Species of birds are seen in langtang national park.

More features of Langtang national park are listed below:

  • Beautiful Langtang national park eventual become famous as – paradise for birds.
  • Red panda& snow leopard are seen 1st time in Nepal in this langtang national park
  • Langtang region trek is considered as an Easy trekking in Nepal.
  • The short distance in between two consecutive camps of langtang trek has made short walk possible (Langtang valley is 8 days Trek)
  • Gosaikunda pass & helambu village has added versatile feature on trekking route in the langtang trek.

Rara National park

Rara lake seen from nearby hilltop
Rara lake is one of the famous place inside rara national park

Rara lake in Rara national park is Largest lake of the world and Rara lake is one of the most visited place in Nepal (by local tourist). This lake is a trending place to visit among foreigners as well.

i) Location – Rara National park is located in Jumla & mugu District of Nepal

ii) Date of establishment – 1976 AD

iii) Covered area -106 km

iv) Altitude -1500-5000 meter

v) Animals in the Rara National Park

Mammal –

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Leopard Cat at Rara National Park

Salak (pamgolim), Redpanda, Musk deer, Common langur, -leopard cat, Gray wolf, snow leopard, blue sheep (blue sheep is prey of snow leopard)

Birds in Rara National Park – 300 species of birds.

shey phoksundo National Park

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Beautiful bird as seen on Shey Phoksundo National Park

i) Location -Dolpa district and mugu district (majorly Mugu district) is where shey Phoksundo lake lies.

ii) Date of establishment -1984AD

iii) Covered Area – 3555km

iv) Altitude – 1500-6000m (lies in the Tibetan  Plato region)

v) Animals found in shey Phoksundo National Park

Tibetan antelope (jarayo in Nepali)or (hiran in Nepali language), Wild yak, Golden eagle(can carry 3 times bigger than his body)

Birds in shey Phoksundo National park –

150 species of birds are recorded in this national park

Khaptad National park

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Snow leopard at Khaptad National Park

i) Location District – Khaptad National park is located in Bajhang, Bajura, Doti

ii) Date of establishment – 1984 AD

iii) Covered Area – 225 km.

iv) Altitude – 1500-5000meter

v) Animals in Khaptad National Park are listed below:

Mammals –  Leopard cat, Musk deer, Grey wolf, Blue sheep, Snow leopard

Birds – 250 Species of bird are recorded in Khaptad National Park

Makalu Barun National park.

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Female Musk Deer

i) Location District – Makalu Barun National park is located in Sankhuwasava & Terathum district in Nepal

ii) Date of establishment – Est 1991 AD.

iii) Covered Area – 1500sq km (future 2350km).

iv) Altitude – Alt 1500-5000m approximate

v) Animals –

Mammals found in Makalu Barun national Park are listed below:

    • Musk deer,
    • Grey wolf.
    • Snow leopard.
    • Common langur.
    • Clouded leopard.
    • Barking deer.
    • Wild boar.

Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Beautiful bird seen at Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park

i) Location of national Park – Parts of Kathmandu, Nagarkot, Sindhupalchok district are in the boundary of Shivapuri Nagarjun national park

ii) Date of Establishment – 2002AD.

iii) Covered Area – Area159km2 (14kkm-15km2)

iv) Altitude – 1350- 1850meteers.

v) Animals in Shivapuri Nagarjun National park are listed below (mammals in the national Park)

  • Red panda
  • Leopard cat
  • Clouded leopard
  • Pangolin
  • Common leopard
  • Wild bear
  • Yellow throated martin

Note – Till the year 2033 BS Shivapuri national park was just with an area of 144 km but later King announced – Shivapuri (jaldhar kshatra) wetland area and then became Shivapuri conservation area at 2033 itself. From Fulchoki nagarjun, Shivapuri, chisapani, Godawori we can  see birds Migrated from Far east. That is why this Shivapuri national park (being near to the capital of Nepal (Kathmandu) is famous destination for bird watching destination among many other national parks in Nepal.

Animals conserved by Shivapuri Nagrajun National park are listed below:

  1. Barking deer.
  2. Common langur.
  3. Yellow throated martin.
  4. Jackal

There are more than 250 species of birds in this national park.

Banke National park

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Royal Bengal Tiger

i) Location – National park lies in the Banke district.

ii) Date of establishment – 2010AD

iii) Covered area – 550km.

iv) Altitude – 80-150m from sea level

v) Animals conserved by Banke national Park

  • Stripped Hyena.
  • Royal Bengal tiger.
  • Wild elephant. Scroll all the way down below for more info on wild elephant
  • Four horned Antelope.
  • Samber bear.
  • Terai or Grey langur.
  • Barking deer.
  • Wild boar.
  • Golden manitor lizard.

300 Species of birds are recorded in Banke National park.

Note – Banke national park is famous for seeing Royal Bengal Tiger

Shuklaphanta National park.

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Leopard seen at Shuklaphanta National Park

i) Location – Shuklaphanta national park lies in Kanchanpur district Nepal.

ii) Established Date – 1976AD

iii) Covered Area -305km

iv) Altitude – 80-120meters

v) Animals conserved by Shuklaphanta national Park

  • Pangolin (Salk).
  • One horned rhino.
  • Leopard cat
  • Wild elephants.
  • Royal Bengal tiger.
  • Swam deer.
  • Black Buk (like deer).
  • Pigmy hog.
  • Wild boar.
  • Common leopard.
  • Spotted leopard.
  • Hawk deer.

300 species of birds are recorded in Shuklaphanta national park

Note – Shuklaphanta National park is famous for bird watching activity in Nepal. People from all over the world coming; to Nepal for Bird watching, goes to this national park.

Parsa National Park

National parks in Nepal
Picture: Asian/Wild Elephant at Parsa National Park

i) Location – National park is located in the Bara & Parsa district.

ii) Established Date – 1984 AD

iii) Covered Area – 627 sq.km

iv) Altitude – 200m

v) Animals conserved by Parsa National Park are listed below:

  • One horned rhino.
  • Bison (gauri gai in Nepali language)
  • Royal Bengal tiger.
  • Asian /wild elephant.
  • Four horned antelope.
  • Saber
  • Barking deer.
  • Grey langur.

300 species of bird are recorded in Parsa National Park.

More information on Asian Elephant found in most of the national Park of Nepal:

  • Asian elephant eats 250-300 kg food per day
  • 40-45 gallon water per day; 8-9 liter at a time –in a day
  • Elephant survives 80-90 years
  • Get disease like human
  • costs 85 lakhs (85 thousands US$) per elephant
  • They can’t see straight but see sides; near from 12 km; See side way of 8 meters
  • have good memories power
  • Die at the same place of most of his/her life; if it is domestic; But if wild they separate from the group and go alone to die

They die became of starvation because they can not chew food in old age

Some important information on National parks in South East Asia:

  1. People who love national park tour for wildlife sighting visits 5 National park in India & Nepal, making loop for multi country nature tour.
  2. Nepal has a national park where you can see Tiger in wild (this is at Bardiya National Park, Nepal); it might be bad to hear but the truth is the poor people living near this Bardiya national park get killed by tiger almost like every year.

About Author

I grew up in the mountains & got university education in Kathmandu to become an engineer. But with homely environment of mountains interest me to become a trekking & tour guide, by passion. I have been 6574 meter to the highest & fortunately got chance to explore most of Nepal and bit of abroad.

Eventually, passion converted to profession and here i am on behalf of Nepalgram - a Trekking agency in Nepal.

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