Background story behind establishment of National parks in Nepal

There are 12 national parks in Nepal. The first national park of Nepal was announced by king Mahendra during his regime, although there is no more king’s rule in existence. King mahendra accepted the proposal of opening a national park, being proposed by Karna Shakya, Udayaman Sharma (Director general of National park) & Ram preet Yadav.

National parks in Nepal
Pic – Rhino observed in the tour of Chitwan national park

It was proposed in the terai region of Nepal where there is churiya hill. Churiya hill of Nepal is covered by 70% of saal forest and 30% of rain forest and the same site was proposed for Tiger conservation by above mentioned dignitaries.

King mahendra himself and 4 Nobel man chartered a helicopter to recce the forest. They flew above the forest of churiya and then decided to make the site as a tiger conservation area.

Those Nobel man described the importance of national park in Nepal. And how it will work as a tourist attraction spot and how the country will get benefit from tourism as well as this national park will preserve different types of reptiles and mammals; listening to all these benefits – king mahendra decided to grant permission to establish Royal National park. This is how the initiation for establishment of first national park of Nepal was taken by king mahendra.

The name of first national park of Nepal was Royal National park and the director general of the national park was appointed to Mr. Udayaman Sharma.

The same Royal national park of that time is now Chitwan National park. So chitwan national park became the first national park of Nepal.

Following are the national parks of Nepal till 2020 AD

Features of 12 National parks in Nepal are described below, beginning with the first national park – Chitwan National park:

1.Chitwan  National park.

  1. Location District-Chiwan,Nawalpur,Makanpur.
  2. Established on 1973AD
  3. Listed on UNESCO world heritage site– 1984AD.
  4. Covered Area –  952Sq km
  5. Location Altitude – approx 200m above sea level
  6. Animals found in the national park –

Mammals – one horned Rhino, Wild elephant, sloth bear, common leopard, number of Royal Bengal tiger 256 at 2019, after catching poacher Tiger are counted in high number, Bison (Gauri cow).


Predators – Spotted dear (chitta in Nepali), Hob dear, Barking dear, Sambar dear, Swamp deer, Wild boar, Fish eater crocodile, Asian alligator, different type of snake in chitwan, Indian rock python –non venom – Eats 5 times biggers than himself – one time hunt is enough for six months –lives on top of river rocks

600 species of birds has been recorded in Chitwan national park.


2. Bardia National park.

  1. Location District – Bardia district
  2. Established – 1976AD
  3. Covered Area –  968Sq km
  4. Location Altitude – approx 80-150m above sea level
  5. Animals found in the national park –

Animals found in Bardia National park are listed below:

Royal Bengal Tiger (Bardia National park is famous for sighting tiger), Asian Elephant (RaJa is the name of Biggest elephant in Asia found in Nepal), Dolphin (found specifically in kosi ,karnali, Narajani river), Wild elephant, one horned Rhino, common leopard, Black buck, Swamp deer, Blue bull, wild boar, spotted deer, Hob deer ,otter, Gadiyal ,Asian alligator, Indian rock python, Dolphin (river of Asian gangatic) , Pangolin

350 types of bird species are found in Bardia National Park

3.Sagarmatha National park

  1. Location District – Solukhumbu
  2. Established – 1976AD
  3. Listed on UNESCO world heritage site– 1979AD.
  4. Covered Area –  1148Sq km
  5. Location Altitude – approx 2780-5364m above sea level
  6. Wildlife found in Sagarmatha National Park are as belwo:
    1. Wild yak, Red panda, Snow leopard, Musk deer, Himalayan jharal, Golden sack, Grey wolf, Himalayan pikka
    1. 250 species of bird species are recorded in Sagarmatha national park

4. Langtang National Park

  • Location Distirct-Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Sindupalchok.
    • Eastablished-1976AD.
    • Famous as red panda Show leopard Conservation Area till 1971 AD.
    • Covered Area-1710sq,km.
    • Altitude range-1500m-7234m.
  • Animal in langtang national park;
    • Redpanda, Musk deer, Snow leopard, Leopard cat, Barking deer, Wild boar, GuBal(deer like cattle), Lommon langur, Himalayan Brown bear, clouded leopard, Himalayan black bear
      • 350 Species of birds are seen in  langtang national park.

More features of Langtang national park are listed below:

  • Beautiful Langtnag national park eventual become famous as – paradise for birds.
  • Red panda& snow leopard are seen 1st time in Nepal in this langtang national park
  • Langtang region trek is considered as an Easy trekking in Nepal.
  • The short distance in between two consecutive camps of langtang trek has made short walk possible (Langtang valley is 8 days Trek)
  • Gosainkunda pass & helambu village has added versatile feature on trekking route in the langtang trek.

5. Rara National park


Rara lake in Rara national park is Largest lake of the world and Rara lake is one of the most visited place in Nepal (by local tourist). This lake is a trending place to visit among foreigners as well.

Location – districts (10%Jumla ,90%mugu).
Date of establishment – 1976 AD
Covered area -106 km
Altitude -1500-5000 meter

Animals in the Rara National Park

mammal – Salak(pamgolim), Redpanda, Musk deer, Comman langur, -leopard cat, Gray wolf, snow leopard, blue sheep (blue sheep is prey of snow leopard)

-Birds in Rara National Park – 300 species of birds.

6. Pshey phoksundo National Park

Location -Dolpa district and mugu district (majorly Mugu district)
Date of establishment -1984AD
Covered Area – 3555km
Altitude – 1500-6000m (lies in the Tibetan  Plato region)

Animals found in Psey Phoksundo National Park – Tibetan antelope (jarayo in Nepali)or (hiran in Nepali language), Wild yak, Golden eagle(can carry 3 times bigger than his body)

Birds in PseyPhoksundo National park

-150 species of birds are recorded in this national park

7. Khaptad National park.

  • Location District – Bajhang,Bajura,Doti,&Assam.
  • Date of establishment – 1984 AD
  • Covered Area – 225 km.
  • Altitude – 1500-5000meter


Animals in Khaptad National Park are listed below:

Mammals –  Leopard cat, Musk deer, Grey wol, Blue sheep, Snow leopard

Birds – 250 Species of bird are recorded in Khaptad National Park

8. Makalu Barun National park.

Location District – Sankhuwasava& Terathom
Date of establishment – Est 1991 AD.
Date of establishment  – 1500sq km (future 2350km).
Altitude – Alt 1500-5000m approximate

Animals (mammals) found in Makalu Barun national Park are listed below:

  1. Redpanda.
  2. Musk deer,
  3. Grey wolf.
  4. Snow leopard.
  5. Pangolin.
  6. Commom langur.
  7. Clouded leopard.
  8. Ghoral.
  9. Barking deer.
  10. Wild boar

9. Sivapuri Nagarjun National Park

Location of national Park – Kathmandu,Nagarkot,Sindupalchok.
Date of Eastablishement – 2002AD.
Covered Area – Area159km2 (14kkm-15km2)
Altitude – 1350- 1850meteers.


Animals in Shivapuri Nagarjung National park are listed belwo (mammals in the national Park)

  • Red panda
  • Leopard cat
  • Clouded leopard
  • Pangolin
  • Common leopard
  • Wild bear
  • Yellow throated martin

Note – Till the year 2033salmaBS shivapuri national park was just with an area of 144km but later King announced – Sivapuri (jaldhar kshatra) wetland area and then became shivapuri conservation area at 2033 itself.

From Fulchoki nagarjun,Shivapuri,chisapani,Godawori we can  see birds Migrated from Far east. That is why this shivapuri national park (being near to the capital of Nepal (Kathmandu) is famous destination for bird watching destination.

Animals conserved by Shivapuri Nagrajun National park are listed below:

  1. Barking deer.
  2. Common langur.
  3. Yellow throated martin.
  4. Jackal

    There are more than 250 species of birds in this national park.

10. Banke National park

.Location – Banke district.
Date of establishment – 2010AD
Covered area – 550km.
Altitude – 80-150m from sea level

Animals conserved by Banke national Park

  • Stripped Hyena.
  • Royal Bengal tiger.
  • Wild elephant.***********see below for more info on wild elephant
  •  Four horned Antelope.
  • Samber bear.
  • Terai or Grey langur.
  • Barking deer.
  • Wild boar.
  • Golden manitor lizard.

    300 Species of birds are recorded in Bardia National park.

    Note _ Bardia national park is famous for seeing Royal Bengal Tiger

11.Suklaphat National park.

Location – Kanchanpur  district .
Established Date – 1976AD
Covered Area -305km
Altitude – 80-120meters

Animals conserved by Suklaphata national Park

  • Pangolin (salk).
  • One horned rhino.
  • Leopard cat .
  • Wild elephants.
  • Royal Bengal tiger.
  • Swam deer.
  • Black Buk (like deer).
  • Pigmy hog.
  • Wild boar.
  • Common leopard.
  • Spotted leopard.
  • Hawk deer.


300 spcs. Of birds are recorded in Suklaphata national park

Note – Suklaphata National park is famous for bird watching activity in Nepal. People from all over the world coming; to Nepal for Bird watching, goes to this national park.

12. Parsa National Park

Location – Bara & Parsa district.
Eastablished Date – 1984 AD
Covered Area – 627 sqkm
Altitude – 200m
Animals conserved by Parsa National Park are listed below:

  1. One horned rhino.
  2. Bison (gauri gai in Nepali language)
  3. Royal  Bengal tiger.
  4. Asian /wild elephant.
  5. Four horned antelope.
  6. Saber
  7. Barking deer.
  8. Grey langur.

300 species of bird are recorded in this National Park.

More information on Asian Elephant found in most of the national Park of Nepal:
  • 250-300kg food per day
  • 40-45gallon water per day; 8-9 liter at a time –in a day
  • Elephant survives 80-90 years
  • Get disease like human
  • costs 85 lakhs (85 thousands US$)  per elephant
  • They can’t see straight but see sides; near from 12 kms; See side way of 8 meters
  • have good memories power
  • Die at the same place of most of his/her life; if it is domestic; But if wild they separate from the group and go alone to die

They die became of starvation because they can not chew food in old age

Some important information on Natinal parks in South east Asia:

  1. People visit  Making loop of 5 National park in India &Nepal
  2. Nepal has a national park where you can see Tiger in wild (this is at Bardia Natioanal Park, Nepal); it might be bad to hear but the truth is the poor people living near this Bardia national park get killed by tiger almost like every year.